Having a basic understanding of the differences in creatine is crucial if you’re interested in improving your strength, endurance, or performance. The differences between creatine monohydrate (CM) and creatine ethyl ether (CEE) are significant, and knowing how to determine which one is best for you can help you to get the most from your workout.
CM and creatine are two popular sports supplements that have been introduced into the supplement market at an astonishing rate. Although these supplements have been shown to offer many exercise benefits such as increase in total creatine content in skeletal muscle, strength, and force development during exercise, they also carry side effects. These side effects include fatigue, anxiety, and nausea.
While there are a number of studies showing the efficacy of CP and CM, very little is known about their pharmacokinetic properties. The present study was designed to investigate the oral bioavailability of CM and CP. The primary goals were to determine the relative differences in the pharmacokinetic profile of these supplements and to evaluate the clinical relevance of these findings.
The aqueous solubility of CM was found to be around 18 mg/mL. This aqueous solubility is much less than that of CP. This may suggest improved oral absorption for CM, as well as more efficient dosing formulations.
However, this is not to say that CM is completely bioavailable. There are a number of reasons why high doses of CM would be reduced in bioavailability. The solubility of CM in the stomach is likely a major factor. Similarly, the solubility of CM in the intestine is probably less than that of CP.
This is an issue because some of the beneficial effects of CM are due to the enhancement of muscle glycogen storage. Moreover, a number of clinical studies have shown that large doses of CM are required for therapeutic purposes. These large doses are usually administered as suspensions.
PBPK modeling has shown that the aqueous solubility of CP and CM is not the same, and that there are significant differences in their pharmacokinetic profiles. The PBPK model has been used to simulate plasma concentration-time curves and predict blood levels and tissue distribution.
Unlike other creatine supplements, Creatine Ethyl Ester (CEE) does not require a loading phase. In fact, it is said to be much more effective than monohydrate. The reason for this claim is that CEE bypasses the creatine transporter and therefore increases the absorption of creatine in the body.
In this study, three groups of untrained men were tested for their ability to absorb and use creatine. They were administered with CEE, Creatine monohydrate, or placebo.
Serum creatinine levels of the men in the CEE group increased significantly after the loading phase. They continued to increase during the entire study. In the muscle, total creatine concentration was higher in the CEE group than the other two groups. However, the total creatinine in the muscles in the CEE group decreased after 7 weeks.
Similarly, power and body water changes were also observed. The changes were statistically significant. The improvements in body composition may be attributable to the training protocol.
The creatine ethyl ester hydrochloride group showed improved gastrointestinal permeability, solubility, and aqueous solubility. In addition, the pH-dependent stability of the compound was assessed using proton NMR at pH.
A new form of creatine, micronized creatine monohydrate, was also tested. This is an inexpensive supplement that has a faster absorption rate and increased purity.
CEE and creatine monohydrate were tested against one another in a double-blind study. The creatine monohydrate group did not show significant differences in the amount of creatine absorbed or the levels of creatinine in the blood. The results from this study indicate that creatine monohydrate is an effective form of creatine.
The study was conducted by the Department of Physiology and Biochemistry at the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center in Oklahoma City. The researchers were able to secure funding to conduct this study. They were assisted by faculty mentor DSW and MS in data acquisition and statistical analysis.
Increasing muscle strength and overall physical fitness can be achieved by taking creatine containing supplements. These supplements work by increasing the amount of creatine that is absorbed by the body. This results in increased high intensity power output and muscle mass.
There are many different types of creatine salts available. These include monohydrate, ethyl ester, and di-malate. They come in different forms and are formulated with different ingredients.
Monohydrate is the basic form of creatine that can be found in the body. It can be taken in liquid or powdered forms. While powdered creatine works best in the stomach, it is not as stable. It also attracts water in the stomach, which can cause discomfort and bloating.
Several manufacturers have tried to improve the stability of creatine in the stomach. While this is promising, more research is needed before a new form can compete with monohydrate.
Creatine ethyl ester is a more basic form of creatine that contains an ester attached to the creatine molecule. It allows for almost 99% absorption. It also provides a lot of additional benefits. In addition to increasing absorption, the ester may help the body retain less water.
In the past, researchers have looked at creatine hydrochloride (HCl) as an alternative to monohydrate. This form of creatine has gained popularity with some supplement users. It is 38 times more soluble than monohydrate and is believed to be less likely to cause side effects. This form of creatine is not as effective as monohydrate, but it can be used in lower doses.
One of the newest forms of creatine is micronized. This form of creatine has smaller particles than the original monohydrate, which mixes easier and adds purity. However, it is also more expensive.
Behavioral studies of creatine differences have shown that creatine supplementation reduces muscle soreness and inflammation, improves recovery, reduces muscle damage and resorption, and promotes better muscle maintenance. The therapeutic potential of creatine supplementation warrants further investigation. However, the public health implications of unauthorized use of creatine warrant careful monitoring.
One study found that adolescent females ingesting 10 grams of creatine per day exhibited an inverse relationship to symptoms of depression. Increasing creatine concentrations in the brain may ameliorate the effects of traumatic brain injury. It is also believed that an altered bioenergetic state in the brain may contribute to the development of depression.
Other studies have found that creatine supplementation may enhance cerebral PCr. This has been shown to inversely correlate with depression in adolescent females who were resistant to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.
Athletes may be able to reduce electrolyte imbalances and increase their fat-free mass through creatine supplementation. In addition to the increase in muscle mass, the osmotic activity of creatine may promote reduced muscle damage and recovery after intense training.
Research has shown that creatine supplementation can increase the amount of extracellular water (ECW), which is important for protein synthesis. Researchers have also studied the effect of co-ingesting creatine with d-pinitol, a nutrient that enhances the retention of creatine in the body. Combined with resistance exercise, the volume of ECW increased significantly. The results suggest that creatine supplementation in combination with resistance exercise may facilitate the development of more effective physical performance adaptations in older adults.
A study of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia showed that creatine supplementation reduced fat mass. The ratio of skeletal muscle mass to ICW remained the same in both groups.
Legal and regulatory status
Whether or not creatine is a legal and regulatory dietary supplement is a controversial topic. While it’s true that creatine is not a controlled substance, the use of this substance can lead to damage to the body. In addition, its use may be detrimental to the health of children and adolescents.
The United States Anti-Doping Agency (USADA) warns that the use of nutritional supplements is at the athlete’s own risk. However, they do not inspect the manufacturing facilities, quality control systems or label claims.
DSHEA, the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994, is a legislative act that emphasizes regulatory enforcement of advertising and marketing issues. Unlike the standard approval process for drugs, DSHEA does not include controlled clinical trials. It does, however, encourage the FDA to enforce the advertising claims of dietary supplement manufacturers.
The American College of Sports Medicine has estimated that Americans consumed 2,755 tons of creatine in 1999. This is an increase of approximately 15-20% per year.
The use of supplemental creatine is widespread among the general population, with many individuals taking it to enhance their athletic performance. Despite this popularity, research on creatine and its benefits has not been well-designed.
There are no regulatory restrictions for the production and sale of supplemental creatine. It can be purchased over-the-counter without a prescription in the U.S. Several manufacturers supplement in ways inconsistent with current clinical research.
Among athletes who took performance-enhancing sports supplements, women were more likely to take them than men. This is likely due to the fact that males make up the majority of collegiate athletic programs.
The Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association’s Healthy Competition Foundation conducted a large-scale survey of athletes in 2001. It found that nearly half of high school seniors took a supplemental creatine product.